General Cosmetic Dentistry

Smile Makeover

A. What is a “smile design”?
A smile design is a dental procedure which artistically creates straighter, whiter and beautiful natural looking smiles. Smile designs can do wonders to fully restore your dental health and appearance regardless of the original state of your existing teeth.

B. Benefits of a smile design.
A smile designer revitalizes your smile in a longer lasting way than Botox or other temporary measures. A smile design is an overall important investment in your overall appearance.
Age decreases our smile due to wear, chipping and discoloration. This can happen gradually and can be very embarrassing. Smile enhancement can get you smiling again.

C. Customizing a Smile Design Plan
Dr. Harsh will work with you to customize and plan your smile design. A free consultation is arranged to make sure you achieve your cosmetic dental goals and to resolve your underlying dental problems.
The timeline is planned so as to minimize the number of appointments and to make sure your smile is completed in time for your special social function (wedding, engagement, wedding anniversary, graduation, etc.).
All other dental diseases are treated first including dental hygiene visit.
Patients are encouraged to bring with them photos of when they were younger or photos of their favorite smile from actors and actresses.
The LVI smile catalogue is used to discuss with the patient the arrangement of teeth, their choices in tooth position and what effect this has on their overall appearance.
A plan is in place before any teeth are prepared.
No two cases are alike. Dr. Harsh creates a customized smile especially for you.

D. Commonly combined treatments
Some smile designs only require Porcelain Veneers
Other smile designs will require a combination of Porcelain Veneers and Porcelain Crowns. Porcelain crowns are chosen when teeth are weak such as endodontically treated teeth or teeth will large old restorations (like large old crowns).
Sometimes teeth are missing in the smile zone. This then required either a porcelain bridge with an ovate pontic or an implant with a Porcelain crown.
Multiple missing anterior teeth may require multiple implants or an implant supported denture to make the completed smile designs.
If too much gum tissue is showing or the gums are uneven when the individual smiles, then a “gum lift” is done with lasers to reduce the amount of gum showing.
If only a few teeth are veneered, then the other teeth are whitened before the smile design is completed. This makes sure that the smile is enhanced and brightened.

E. Who is a candidate for a Smile Design?
An individual that wants to look younger. A smile design can take years off of your appearance.
An individual that wants to have more confidence when they smile.
An individual that cares how they look and wants to make an investment into their dental health
An individual that wants to be more appealing to members of the opposite sex. It is a known fact that 96% of adults believe that an attractive smile does this (according to a study done by the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry
An individual that wants to improve their chances for career advancement or success. It is a known fact that 74% of adults feel that an enhanced smile will allow for a more successful career (
An individual that wants to be noticed and appear healthier.
An individual that takes care of their teeth with regular dental checkups and good dental hygiene.
Anyone that wants to invest in their dental health and in their overall future.

Gap Closure

Gap between two teeth is known as a diastema. Gappy teeth are really common in children but are generally not something to be worried about since the spaces often disappear as adult teeth erupt.

Some people are happy to live with a gap in their teeth
If you have a diastema or several gaps between your teeth after all of your adult teeth have come through, you may want to explore different malocclusion treatments for diastema closure. Or, you might not – some people choose to keep their diastema, especially between the two front teeth. It’s actually believed to bring wealth, fertility or luck in certain cultures.

Dental Veneers

What are veneers?

Dental veneers are thin, tooth-colored shells that are attached to the front surface of teeth to improve their appearance. They’re often made from porcelain or resin-composite materials and are permanently bonded to your teeth.

Veneers can be used to treat a number of different cosmetic concerns, including chipped, broken, discolored, or smaller-than-average teeth.

Some people may only get one veneer in the case of a broken or chipped tooth, but many get between six to eight veneers in order to create an even, symmetrical smile. The top front eight teeth are the most commonly applied veneers.

What are the different types of veneers?
Dental veneers are most commonly made out of porcelain. Applying traditional dental veneers requires more intensive prep work compared to alternatives that are sometimes called “no-prep veneers.” These no-prep veneers — which include options like Lumineers and Vivaneeres — take less time and are less invasive to apply.

Applying traditional dental veneers typically involves grinding down the tooth structure, sometimes removing some of the tooth even past the enamel. This allows for proper placement, but it’s also an irreversible procedure that can be painful to go through and often requires a local anesthetic.

No-prep veneers, on the other hand, may require some tooth preparation or alteration, but these alterations are minimal. Instead of removing layers of tooth under the enamel, no-prep veneers only affect the enamel. In many cases, no-prep veneers don’t require local anesthetics.

Veneers aren’t the same as tooth implants or crowns. Veneers cover the front surface of the tooth. Implants, on the other hand, replace the entire tooth. Crowns also encase the entire tooth, while veneers only cover the front surface of the tooth (which is visible with a smile).

The cost of your veneers depends on factors like what type of veneers you’re choosing, what brand name your dentist has available, your area’s cost of living, and the expertise of the dentist.

What are the benefits of dental veneers?
The biggest benefit to veneers is improving the appearance of your teeth, giving you a brighter and more even smile. Dental veneers are often used to treat the following cosmetic occurrences:

broken or chipped teeth
severe discoloration or uneven colouring that can’t be fixed with whitening
gaps in the teeth
smaller-than-average teeth
pointed or unusually shaped teeth
Veneers can last for more than a decade, depending on the type of veneer you choose, making them a semi permanent investment that can make you more confident in your smile.

How to prepare for your appointment
Before you get your veneers, you’ll have a preliminary appointment with your dentist to discuss which options are right for you and how many veneers you want to have placed. In some cases, if teeth are crooked or uneven, you may need to have braces before your dentist can place the veneers.

Your dentist will often take X-rays at this stage to evaluate your teeth’s health. They’ll look for signs of tooth decay, gum disease, or the need for root canals. If you have any of these conditions, you may not be a candidate for veneers.

To get accurate sizing for your veneers, at the next appointment, your dentist trims down about a half a millimeter of your tooth (they remove the enamel using a grinding tool) before they take a mold (impression) of your teeth. This mold is then sent off to the lab for the creation of your veneers.

How are veneers put on teeth?
It typically takes between one and two weeks after your dentist creates your mold to get your veneers back from the lab.

Once your veneers are in, you can schedule an appointment to have them placed. At this appointment, your dentist evaluates the fit, shape, and coloration of the veneers to make sure they’re perfect for you.

Next, your dentist thoroughly cleans your teeth. This is important, as it keeps bacteria from being trapped under the veneer and causing decay. After they do this, they use the grinding tool to create a rougher texture on each tooth on which a veneer is to be applied. This makes it easier for the veneer to stick to the tooth.

Your dentist then uses a dental cement to bind the veneer to the tooth. They’ll use ultraviolet light to harden this cement quickly, and once you leave the office, your new smile is ready to go!

This second appointment (where veneers are placed) typically doesn’t last longer than two hours, though it might be an extra thirty minutes if a local anesthetic is used.

How to take care of your veneers after they’re placed
Unlike other dental procedures, the recovery process doesn’t take an extended amount of time. Instead, once the veneers are cemented on and any anesthetics wear off, you can eat and chew as you normally would. While the anesthetic is wearing off, be conscious of not chewing on your cheeks or tongue.

In some cases, immediately after the veneers are applied, you may notice that they feel a little rough. These rough spots (usually from extra cement that can adhere to the veneer) wear down after several days of normal eating and teeth brushing; if they don’t, your dentist can smooth them out.

Traditional porcelain veneers typically last between 10 and 15 years, and no-prep veneers last around 5 to 7 years. Taking certain precautions can help make sure that you get the longest lifespan out of them possible. These precautions include:

Don’t chew on hard objects like pens, ice, or your finger nails.
Never use your teeth to open packaging or condiment packages.
Try not to chew with your front teeth. Eat harder foods with your back teeth only; cut up hard foods like chocolate bars so that this is possible.
If you grind or clench your teeth at night, get a splint or retainer to protect your veneers.
If playing sports, you must wear a mouth guard.

Crooked Teeth Correction

Crooked Teeth: Causes, Impact, and Treatment
Do you ever look at people with perfectly straight teeth and wonder how lucky does one have to be to have a straight, Hollywood-like smile? Well, we understand. Our smile is a significant part of our personality, and having twisted, overlapping, or crooked teeth can immensely affect our confidence. But the good news is that luck doesn’t have anything to do with the appearance of your teeth; there are a few logical reasons why teeth grow in crooked. Another good news is that you can fix crooked teeth through orthodontic treatment. But before we get into how you can go about cosmetic dentistry to get straighter teeth, let’s understand the causes of the crooked teeth problems and the impact they can have on us.

Causes of Crooked Teeth
Thumb Sucking – Children who suck their thumb for several years often end with crooked teeth. The pressure from the thumb consistently applied to the still-growing gums causes the teeth to grow in crooked, especially outwards. The problem of crooked teeth is more likely if this habit continues until the toddler age.
Tongue Thrusting – Tongue thrusting has the same effect on the teeth as thumb sucking. It can result in misaligned bites, especially an overbite, i.e., protruding upper teeth.
Misaligned Teeth – Misaligned teeth or malocclusion is caused when the size of the upper or the lower jaw is smaller than usual. Misaligned jaws result in problems such as overbite and underbite. In an overbite, the upper set of teeth protrudes over the lower teeth, and in an underbite, the lower set of teeth protrudes over the upper teeth.
Genetics – Children often get crooked teeth from their parents. If the crooked teeth problem runs down in the family, the children are likely to have crooked permanent teeth too despite following good oral care habits.
Facial Injury – Facial trauma, such as a jaw injury in childhood, can result in displaced teeth or misaligned bites. The reason is the jaw shifting slightly from its original position, which causes the teeth to grow in crooked. Facial injuries may also result in tooth loss. And when there is open space in a jaw, the rest of the teeth tend to shift to cover that space.
Problems Due to Crooked Teeth
Gum Disease – Oral care in case of crowded or crooked teeth is naturally hard. Over time, poor oral health or dental health results in bad breath, plaque, tooth decay, and eventually, gum disease. The initial stage of gum disease is called gingivitis when the gums feel itchy, irritated, and swollen. Bleeding gums is another symptom of gum disease. But if gingivitis is left untreated, it leads to periodontitis in which the problem travels to the bone and results in bone and tooth loss.
Wear and Tear – Misaligned teeth are more prone to wear and tear. But the problem doesn’t stop at the wear and tear. In many cases, excessive wear and tear lead to TMJ disorder or Temporomandibular Jaw disorder in which the patients experience extreme pain or even locking of the jaw bone on movement.
Difficulty Chewing – Crooked or crowded teeth make chewing difficult, which can lead to digestion problems.
Speech Difficulty – Speech difficulties, such as problem pronouncing a few words, is the most common effect of crooked teeth.
Low Self Esteem – People with crooked teeth or misaligned teeth face the problem of low self-esteem; after all, our smile reflects our personality. Moreover, poor dental health can result in stained teeth that look unappealing and make people feel embarrassed. These are the prevailing reasons people go for cosmetic dentistry.
Why You Should Go for Teeth Straightening
It is true that straighter teeth improve the overall appearance and boost confidence. But teeth straightening is vital in case of extreme teeth misalignment since it can lead to periodontitis, which increases the risk of heart disease. Infected bone below the gum line can cause a bacterial infection in the heart stream, which can affect the valves in the heart.

Treatment Options for Crooked Teeth
The two most effective methods to fix crooked teeth are:

Braces – Braces are a type of an orthodontic appliance that consist of brackets, bands, and wires. They apply constant pressure on the jaw over an extended period, which makes it adapt to the pressure in a certain direction, causing it to move into the desired position. There are three types of braces available including metal braces, ceramic braces, and lingual braces. You can talk to your orthodontist and know what may be the most appropriate teeth alignment solution for you based on the results of your oral examination.

Invisalign – Invisalign is basically invisible braces. The treatment includes clear or transparent trays that are custom-created to fit over your teeth set. Your orthodontist will create several molds, and you will have to move from one mold to another until your teeth finally move into the correct position. Adults often go for Invisalign since they are clear and can easily go unnoticed. However, it’s the higher cost of Invisalign that makes braces a more practical solution.

Tooth Coloured Filling

Composite fillings, also known as white, plastic, or tooth-colored fillings, use a tooth-colored resin made up of powdered glass and plastic resin to fill in cavities, which gives the filling a natural appearance and enables it to blend with the surrounding tooth structure. Composite fillings are commonly used in the front teeth, which are immediately visible, however because of their ability to withstand chewing force, they can also be used in the rear teeth as well.


Did You Know?
The powdered glass and plastic resin that composes composite fillings can also be used for other dental applications such as inlays, veneers, and dental crowns. Composite resin can also be used for dental bonding to improve tooth color or repair broken, cracked, chipped, or otherwise damaged teeth.


Frequently Asked Questions:
Should I get a composite filling?
You should get a composite filling if you are in need of a small to medium filling and you want to maintain the natural look of your teeth. If you have a known metal allergy, or if you are prone to allergies, you may also want to consider a composite filling since they do not use metal. Some other possible benefits of composite fillings include their ability to strengthen teeth through their bonding process, their ability to spare natural tooth structure during placement, and their ability to be used to fix broken, worn, or chipped teeth. To find out if composite fillings are right for you, schedule a consultation with Fox Dental today!


composite filling

What is the difference between a composite filling and an amalgam filling?
Composite fillings are made out of powdered glass and plastic resin, blend in with the existing tooth structure, are able to preserve the natural tooth structure by bonding to the tooth, and are able to be used on allergy-prone individuals. However, composite fillings also take longer to place, have to be replaced more frequently, and can be more expensive than amalgam fillings. Amalgam fillings are composed of various metals, are highly durable, last a long time, and are more affordable. However, they have a metal appearance and allergy-prone individuals may not be able to use them.


What happens when getting a composite filling?
When you get a composite filling, your mouth will first be numbed to prevent you from feeling any pain or discomfort during the procedure. The first step to placing a composite filling is to remove the decayed tissue and prepare the remaining cavity. To prepare the cavity, it must be properly cleaned to ensure that all the bacteria has been removed with the decayed tissue. Once the cavity is prepared, our dentists will place a composite resin in layers, hardening each individual layer before placing the next. Once all the layers have been placed and hardened, then the filling can be shaped and polished so that it blends in with the tooth.

What happens after I get a composite filling?
After your composite filling is placed, you will be able to continue with your normal activities. Because the filling is hardened during your procedure effectively sealing it, you will have no special guidelines to follow. However, you may notice that your teeth are sensitive to hot and cold temperatures in the days directly following your procedure. This is normal for a few days after your procedure, but if the sensitivity lasts beyond a week, call our office for further instruction.


woman in dental chair

How long do composite fillings last?
Composite fillings usually last about 5 years. If well taken care of, however, they do have the potential to last longer. To get your composite filling to last longer, be sure to practice good oral hygiene by brushing twice a day, flossing once a day, and visiting Fox Valley Dental at least twice a year for your regular dental checkup and professional cleaning. Also, to avoid damaging your composite filling, be sure to avoid nail-biting, ice chewing, and opening packages with your teeth.

Do composite fillings fall out?
Composite fillings can fall out, but this generally only happens when they have worn out. Regular dental checkups at Fox Valley Dental allow our dentists to monitor the wearing of your composite fillings so that we can replace them before they reach the point where they fall out. Because of this, we recommend regular dental checkups twice a year.


How can I get my composite filling replaced or repaired before it falls out?
To prevent your composite fillings from falling out, we highly recommend having them replaced or repaired beforehand. Regularly visiting our office allows us to consistently examine the borders of your filling for signs of wear that could indicate your filling needs to be replaced.

If we find that your composite filling needs to be replaced, we will remove the existing filling and then place a new filling. If your filling needs to be repaired, we will usually add and shape layers of composite as needed. Usually, if you have a composite filling on your molar, we recommend repairing the filling instead of replacing it. This is because replacement can cause a loss of natural tooth structure, especially in molars.


tooth in one hand and coins in the other

How much do composite fillings cost?
Composite fillings cost an average of $135-$240 per filling. The exact cost of a composite filling will depend on the location and size of the filling. If you have dental insurance, you may be able to obtain some level of coverage, especially if the tooth requiring the filling is in the front of the mouth. However, some insurance companies do not provide coverage for composite fillings and instead recommend amalgam fillings.

If you are interested in getting a composite filling, schedule a consultation with Dr. Harsh Vardhan Sinha.

Dental Cleaning Polishing

During a typical checkup your dentist or dental hygienist will remove the plaque and tartar (plaque that builds up and hardens on the tooth surface and can only be removed with professional cleaning) from above and below the gum line of all teeth. If you have some signs of gum disease, your dentist may recommend professional dental cleaning more than twice-a-year. Dental cleanings are not a treatment for active gum disease. They are, though, an important preventive measure that can help you stave off its development.

Dental Bleeding

What are bleeding gums?
Bleeding gums are the most common symptom of gum disease. But it can also point to other health problems.

Occasional bleeding of the gums can be caused by brushing your teeth too vigorously or wearing dentures that don’t fit correctly. Frequent gum bleeding can also indicate more serious conditions, including:

periodontitis (an advanced form of gum disease)
leukemia (cancer of the blood)
vitamin deficiency
lack of clotting cells (platelets)
Dental conditions that can cause bleeding gums
Dental care issues are the primary cause of bleeding gums. Gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and periodontitis make your gums sensitive and prone to bleeding.

Most people develop gingivitis when plaque stays on gum lines too long. Plaque refers to the debris and bacteria that stick to your teeth.

Brushing your teeth removes plaque and can prevent you from developing cavities (dental caries). But plaque may stay on your gum line, if you don’t brush and floss properly.

If plaque isn’t removed it can harden into tartar (calculus), which will increase bleeding. The accumulation of plaque near your gums can also cause gingivitis.

Symptoms of gingivitis include:

puffy gums
soreness in the mouth and around the gums
bleeding gums
Periodontal disease (periodontitis) can occur when gingivitis becomes advanced. Periodontal disease is an infection of the gums, jawbone, and supportive tissues that connect your teeth and gums. Periodontitis can cause your teeth to loosen or fall out.

Vitamin deficiencies
Vitamin C and vitamin K deficiencies can also cause gums to bleed easily.

Ask your doctor to check your levels of vitamins C and K if you have bleeding gums that aren’t caused by improper dental care. Also, follow a diet that contains both nutrients to ensure you’re getting the vitamins you need to stay healthy.

Foods rich in vitamin C include:

citrus fruits and juices
bell peppers
Foods rich in vitamin K include:

Swiss chard
mustard greens
canola oil
olive oil


[2:06 AM, 12/5/2020] Sinha Dental Clinic: Other causes of bleeding gums
People who wear dentures also may sometimes experience bleeding gums. This is more likely when dentures fit too tightly.

Talk to your dentist or orthodontist if dentures or other oral appliances are causing your gums to bleed. They may need to take new impressions to create a better fitting mouthpiece.

Pregnancy commonly causes of gum bleeding. Hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy can cause the gums to be more sensitive.

Bleeding disorders like hemophilia and leukemia can also increase your risk of bleeding gums. Your gums might bleed more often if you take blood-thinning medications. Drugs in this class include warfarin, aspirin, and heparin.

Treatment of bleeding gums
Good dental hygiene is the first step to managing bleeding gums.

Visit your dentist twice per year for professional cleaning. You can book an appointment with a dentist in your area using our Healthline FindCare tool. Your dentist will let you know if you have gingivitis and teach you how to brush your teeth properly. Proper brushing and flossing can remove plaque from your gum line and reduce your risk of developing periodontal disease.

Your dentist may also show you how to use an antiseptic mouthwash to minimize plaque that forms in your mouth. And a rinse of warm salt water can help soothe swollen gums that bleed easily.

Use a soft toothbrush. It’ll be gentle on inflamed gums, especially if you experience bleeding after brushing your teeth. Medium and hard bristles may be too abrasive for your delicate gums.

You might also consider using an electric toothbrush. The specially designed brush heads on these toothbrushes can help you to clean your gum line more easily than a manual toothbrush.
[2:07 AM, 12/5/2020] Sinha Dental Clinic: The takeaway
While bleeding gums are the most common symptom of dental issues, other issues might be the cause.

Schedule an appointment with your primary care provider to determine whether dental health is the underlying issue causing your bleeding gums. A physical examination and blood work can help determine the cause of your bleeding. Treatment will vary according to your condition.